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Definition of Data: Functions, Benefits, Types, and Examples

Timesofummah.comNowadays, data is used as an explanation and even becomes a reference to make it easier for people to find or observe something. Information from the data can be in the form of words, sentences, numbers, symbols, and others. However, if you want to understand more deeply about data, it would be better if we first find out what data means in general.

Today, data has become an important part of people’s daily lives. From this data, people can find out various kinds of information based on what they need. What’s more, the data itself also has various functions that make it very easy for people to get and also summarize research results.

Of course, there are many other data functions that make it very easy for people to carry out various activities or work. In addition, data is also widely used as the basis for deciding everything even to target the market. If you are still confused about what data is, here we will discuss the meaning of data, its functions, and also its types. Check out the full explanation below.

Understanding Data

Definition of Data Functions, Benefits, Types, and Examples

Data is a collection of information or facts made with words, sentences, symbols, numbers, and others. The data here is obtained through a search process and also appropriate observations based on certain sources. Another understanding of data is as a collection of information or basic descriptions derived from objects or events.

Where in the collection of information is obtained from observations which are then processed into other, more complex forms. Both in the form of information, databases, and others. When viewed linguistically, the word data comes from Latin, namely “Datum” which means something given. From that term, we can find the meaning of data which is the result of measuring or observing a certain variable in the form of words, colors, numbers, symbols, and other information.

The data itself is still raw. So, if you want to get good and accurate data, it is very important to rely on data that has been trusted for its truth, accuracy, timeliness, and wide scope. In addition, because the data is still raw, someone who reads it and also sees it cannot get complete information. Not surprisingly, from this data, we still need to process the data that we have obtained until the data can actually produce information that we can understand easily.

Understanding Data According to Experts

The following are some meanings of data from experts:

a. Arikunto Suharsimi

The definition of data according to Arikunto Suharsimi is a series of facts and figures that can be used as an ingredient to compile information.

b. Nuzulla Agustina

Understanding data according to Nuzulla Agustina is information about something that has often happened and in the form of a series of numbers, facts, pictures, graphic tables, words, symbols, letters, and others that express a thought, condition, motorcycle taxi, and situation.

c. Kuswandi and E. Mutiara

Understanding data according to Kuswandi and E. Mutiara is a collection of information obtained from an observation which can be in the form of symbols, numbers, and also properties.

d. Slamet Riyadi

The definition of data according to Slamet Riyadi is a collection of information obtained based on observations in which data can be in the form of numbers or symbols.

e. Kristanto

The definition of data according to Kristanto is a fact about objects that can reduce the level of uncertainty about a situation and event.

Data Benefits and Functions

The data that you find today must have various functions and also their respective benefits. When viewed in general, below are some of the benefits and functions of data that you can get:

a. As an Activity Reference

The benefits and also the function of the first data is as a reference for activities. This means that the data can be used as a reference or benchmark to make a certain activity that we want.

b. As a Planning Basis

We can use data as a plan. Because, in making a plan it is very important to use accurate parameters. While that data can be used as a parameter as well as a reference in making a plan. Not only that, the data can also be used as material for forecasting the situation or situation in the future. By looking at the data, a plan will be more mature and focused. So that we can get the right and optimal results.

c. Basis For Making Decisions

A data can be useful for making a decision. From the existing data, one can make the best decision on an existing problem. That way, someone will more easily make decisions based on reliable data.

d. As Material For Evaluation

In addition to the various benefits and functions mentioned above, data can also be used as an evaluation material. For example, in a certain institution or organization, it will definitely require evaluation in order to improve its quality.

In that case, data acts as a material for evaluating the results of work or activities that have been carried out by a particular institution and organization. From the various benefits and functions of the data above, you can also get types of data that you may not know about. The following are some types of data that you can know below:

Types of Data and Examples

After understanding what is the meaning of data, its benefits, and also its functions. So this time we will discuss about the types of data and their examples. In this way, our knowledge of data will increase. Then, what are the types of data that we need to understand? Here is the full explanation.

a. Data Based on How to Get It

The first type of data is based on how to get it. There are two ways to get this data, including:

1. Primary Data

Primary data is data obtained and collected directly from objects that have previously been studied by an organization or individual. For example:

                    – Data from survey results
– Data from interviews
– Data from questionnaire results

2. Secondary Data

Secondary data is data that we can get from other sources that have existed before. This means that in secondary data, a person does not need to collect data directly from the object to be studied. Usually, this type of data can be obtained from ready-made previous research. Be it in the form of graphs, tables, or diagrams. Examples are:

– Specific disease data
– Data on the population census and so on

b. Data by Source

This type of data has two kinds, namely:

1. External Data

External data is data obtained from outside the organization or the place where the research was conducted. Usually, this type of data is used as a comparison from one place to another. For example, population data, sales data for other companies’ products, data on the number of students from other schools, and so on.

2. Internal Data

Internal data is data that can be obtained directly from an organization or the place where the research takes place. For example, employee data from a company, data about a company’s customer satisfaction and so on.

c. Data Based on Traits

This type of data is divided into two, namely:

1. Quantitative Data

Quantitative data is data obtained by conducting a survey. So you will get an answer in the form of numbers. The data is more objective. Therefore, when you see the data or read the data, it will not interpret it differently. Just an example:

– Lala is 30 years old
– Alwi’s height is 168 cm
– Tina’s body temperature is 36 degrees Celsius and much more

2. Qualitative Data

In contrast to quantitative data in the form of numbers, qualitative data is more descriptive data. That is data that is not in the form of numbers. Usually the data is created using symbols, pictures, or other verbal forms. This type of data can be obtained through filling out questionnaires, observations, literature studies, interviews, and so on. No wonder this type of data is more objective. So when people see or read it can lead to different interpretations. For example:

– Quality of service of a hospital
– Questionnaires on customer satisfaction and so on.

d. Data Based on Collection Time

Cross-sectional data is data collected only at certain times to find out the situation at that time. For example, questionnaire research data. Periodic data is data that is collected periodically from time to time to find out the development of an event during a certain period. For example, data on food prices.

Method of collecting data

Data collection methods are techniques or methods used by a researcher to collect data. The data collection aims to obtain the information needed to achieve a research objective. Not only that, the data collection instrument is a tool used to collect data. Here are some data collection methods that you need to understand:

1. Interview

Interviews are one of the data collection techniques that are carried out face-to-face and ask questions and answers directly with speakers and researchers. However, as technology develops, interview methods can also be done through certain media, such as telephone, email, or skype.

2. Observation

Observation or observation is a complex data collection method because it involves various factors in its implementation. However, the observation method does not only measure the attitude of the respondents, but observations can also be used to record various phenomena that occur when collecting data.

3. Questionnaire

Questionnaire is a method of collecting data by giving various kinds of questions or written statements to respondents to be answered later. In addition, the questionnaire method is a more efficient data collection method if the researcher knows the exact variables to be measured and understands what the respondents expect.

4. Study Documents

Study documents are an indirect method of collecting data to discuss research subjects. Document review is a type of data collection that examines various types of documents that are useful for document analysis.

Data source

The data needed in a study can be collected or obtained from various data sources. The definition of the data source in research is the subject from which the data can be obtained. If the research uses the interview or questionnaire method in data collection, then the source will be referred to as respondents, namely people who respond or answer the researcher’s questions.

However, if the data collection is carried out on the population, the research respondents are the population. Meanwhile, if the data collection is done on a sample, then the respondent is a sample. Data were collected by giving responses given by respondents. Questions about the data will be collected with regard to the variables.

If the research uses observational techniques, the source of the data obtained can be in the form of motion, objects, or the process of something. Research that observes student activities in learning, the data source comes from students. While the object of research is student activities in learning activities. If the researcher uses document analysis techniques, then documents or records are the source of the data. Meanwhile, the contents of the research subject’s notes become research variables.

Data sources can be grouped based on two things. The first is based on the subject where the data exists and the second is based on the data source area. If it is based on the subject where the data exists, it will be classified again into four short P letters from English:

a. P = Person

This is a data source in the form of people. This data source can provide data in the form of oral answers or interviews as well as written answers through questionnaires. The source of the data obtained is called the respondent.

b. P = Place

This data source is in the form of a place. This is a data source that displays a display in the form of a still state, such as objects, tools, colors, room conditions, and so on.

c. P = Process

The source of the data is in the form of activities or activities. This is a data source that displays a display in the form of a moving state, such as learning activities, motion, performance, and others.

d. P = Paper

This data source is usually a symbol. This is a data source that displays signs in the form of letters, symbols, numbers, and other images.

Based on the data source area, either in whole or in part, will be taken as research subjects. Where the data sources can be divided into two, namely the population and the sample. Data collection carried out on the population will produce more accurate data and conclusions. Because no errors will occur. This is because all data objects are collected and analyzed. However, such data collection is often not possible due to various obstacles. With such a situation, generally data collection is only done from the sample.

The sample is part of the population that has characteristics and characteristics similar to the population because it is taken from the population using certain sampling techniques that are methodologically accountable. If the source of the data is a sample, then the data collection and analysis is only carried out on the sample, but the conclusions will be applied for all populations through generalization.

Sample Data

The following are some examples of data that you need to know, including:

a. Persija data wins
b. Road accident
c. Price of eggs and chicken pieces
d. Rising fuel prices
e. Vegetable juice drink
f. Road construction
g. The price of the latest cellphones and the latest laptops
h. Prices of vegetables and fruits


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