Timesofummah.com – Educational administration is a form of effort to integrate existing activities and programs. This activity is interdependent with groups and individuals who have the same goal for the benefit of students.
The following is a further explanation of the existence of educational administration.
Definition of Educational Administration
The definition of educational administration is expressed by several experts as follows.
- Drs. M. Ngalim Purwanto, stated that education administration is a process of integrating or combining educational goals personally, spiritually, to materially.
- The Ministry of Education and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia, also defines education administration as all processes related to educational activities including directing, planning, coordinating, financing, reporting, to supervision in the context of covering education.
- Dasuqi and Somantri, stated that education administration is an effort to practice existing administrative rules in the field of education.
- Hadari Nawawi, said that education administration is a series of joint activities to achieve education in order to create a systematic education.
- Good Carter V, defines educational administration as all the techniques and procedures used in the administration of educational institutions in accordance with predetermined policies.
- According to Knezevich, educational administration is a process that deals with the creation, maintenance, stimulation, and unification of forces in an educational institution in an effort to realize predetermined goals.
- Oteng Sutisna also stated that education administration is an effort to coordinate the interdependent activities of people and groups in achieving the common goal of children’s education.
- Nasution stated that education administration is the overall process of all joint activities in the field of education by utilizing all available facilities, both personal, material, and spiritual to achieve educational goals.
In addition, education administration can also be interpreted as a collaboration to achieve educational goals, as well as a process to achieve educational goals, starting from planning, organizing, directing, monitoring and assessing. Educator administration can also be thought of as a system with a whole consisting of interacting parts, with the aim of management being to monitor whether the goals set have been achieved.
In terms of leadership, the administration of educators serves to answer questions about how educational administrators carry out their duties, as well as a decision-making process between employees and a leader.
Meanwhile, in terms of communication, education administration is an attempt to make other people understand and vice versa. Educational administration can also be seen from an administrative point of view regarding routine activities of taking notes, documenting activities, also organizing correspondence with all its aspects and preparing reports.
By paying attention to the components of education and the education system, the administration will act as a supporter and facilitate the teaching and learning process. In carrying out educational administration, there will be many things that must be done. Not to mention related to social cases such as dropping out of school and the problem of lacking character education.
Elements and Objectives of Educational Administration
According to Sondang P Siagian, there are several elements that must exist in the administration of education, such as having more than 2 people working on it, also supported by equipment and supplies.
According to The Liang Gie, the administrative elements are different again, which includes the existence of organization, management, communication, finance, supplies, staffing, administration, and public relations or public relations. These eight elements must be present in educational institutions, from elementary to higher education institutions.
The goals of administration according to Sergiovanni and Carver are seen in four basic goals that are emphasized in the world of education, namely creating production effectiveness, efficiency, adaptability, and building job satisfaction.
In addition to these four objectives, the other goals of educational administration are to achieve flexibility in the educational administration process, efficiency and effectiveness in the implementation of educational administration and the implementation of a lifelong education and education administration continuity that is disciplinary and guided by scientific linearity.
The education administration is also responsible for forming and producing quality and beneficial students for the nation and state. In addition to educating, it also gives birth to students who have faith, have character, are independent and responsible. Don’t be a person who is corrupt, because in the end it will be detrimental to society and the state.
The Role of Educational Administration
There are several roles of educational administration that we need to know as follows.
- Planning, in achieving educational goals requires careful planning. The plan is made as good as possible so that it can run optimally. Because educational planning is not made arbitrarily, it must be a mutual agreement.
- Organizing, this is very necessary in building good relationships and interactions with staff, between education and students. Therefore, this must work together to achieve the expected educational outcomes.
- Coordination, this must be based on good communication. If communication is not based on coordination, it will also have no impact. The team in the coordination section will be responsible for forming techniques, generating ideas, and how to create interactive learning.
If it falters, the management of educational institutions will also fall. The results of students will also be messy because it is caused by the lack of maximum knowledge that has been given.
- Communication, one way to establish connectivity between educators and students is good communication. Building communication is used as a means of transforming knowledge between educators and students, as well as reporting on the results of educational attainment from regional units to central units.
- Supervision, while carrying out to achieve the goal it is necessary to have supervision. Because without supervision, if there is a violation, it can be immediately reprimanded. In every unit of educational institution a management structure is formed, if it is not monitored the potential for fraud is very likely to occur.
- Staffing, commonly referred to as staffing, has the responsibility for planning and organizing. With staffing, the work structure will make it easier to achieve educational goals.
- Budgeting, to run and achieve educational goals there are exit costs and entry costs. So we need budgeting that needs supervision. Because in the finance department, there is a high risk of corruption by some irresponsible people or persons.
- Assessment, in an organization or educational institution will require transparency in the management process. One of them is by evaluating, whether it has been done effectively as a whole and the achievement or not at all, so that things that are lacking can be corrected.
To run an education is not an easy thing, because it requires many elements and elements that are integrated and related to each other. In fact, many structures must be involved in order to achieve national education because it is related to government and the world of education.
Principal and Functions of Educational Administration
The existence of a relationship between education providers and learning in schools, raises the existence of several points and functions of educational administration, namely as follows.
- Educational administration is one of the regulatory systems to integrate all types and forms of resources related to the effectiveness of learning towards the achievement of educational goals in schools. In the Preamble of the 1945 Constitution, it is emphasized that the purpose of the national education of the Republic of Indonesia is to educate the life of the nation.
- The existence of the formation of a national education system with educational autonomy, because the social reality of the Indonesian nation is multicultural. With the national education autonomy system, the managerial learning process in each school can run intensively, effectively, and efficiently.
- A clear national education plan is needed to achieve the elaboration of national education goals, with a description of the form of programs that will be concrete and structured. Implementation needs to be supported by an accurate organizing and coordinating system. This also requires an intensive supervision system so that learning in schools can run effectively and efficiently in order to achieve the multi-competence target of human resources as an urgent national need.
- The existence of a strong function and role as a renewal of social life towards achieving national goals in the future.
The four main points of educational administration need to function as the basis for developing effective education management and learning in schools. In addition, it also requires consideration of the psychological, anthropological, and sociological backgrounds of the community in the school environment.
This is because the substance of spiritual, intellectual, and moral intelligence has become the goal of education with the process of fostering behavior as a socio-psychological, anthropological and sociological aspect. In order for the process to run smoothly, a clear and comprehensive education and learning plan is needed. In addition, an effective and efficient implementation management system is also needed.
Principles of Educational Administration
There are two principles that are used as the working basis of educational administration activities in schools, namely the ideal principle and the operational principle.
On the ideal principle, the implementation of education administration in a country depends on the education system adopted. The education system adopted by the Indonesian state is an education system based on Pancasila and the 1945 Constitution.
Educational administration is essentially a broad educational sub-system, so the ideal basis used in administrative activities in schools is Pancasila and the 1945 Constitution.
The second principle is the operational or principle used to achieve the national education goals as stated in the Law on the National Education System Number 20 of 2003, the education system in Indonesian schools has undergone renewal. The reform was carried out to improve the quality of education at the school level.
The principles used in the 2013 curriculum as the basis for operational administration are as follows:
1. Flexibility Principle
The implementation of education in schools must pay attention to ecosystem factors and the ability to provide facilities for the implementation of school education.
2. Principles of Efficiency and Effectiveness
Efficiency is not only in the proper use of time, but also in the optimal use of energy.
3. Goal-oriented principle
Educational administration is a component in the education system, so to achieve these objectives the operational objectives that have been formulated must be the basis for the implementation of educational administration activities in schools.
4. The Principle of Continuity
Is the operational basis in carrying out administrative activities in schools. Because, in each level of education must have a hierarchy that is mutually sustainable.
5. Principles of Lifelong Education
Every human being is expected to always develop. Therefore, the community or government is expected to create a situation that can support the teaching and learning process.
Educational Administration Tasks
The educational administration tasks are as follows:
- Strive for education to appear normally by formulating, completing, describing and setting educational goals that will be formally concerned
- Disseminate and try to instill educational goals to members of the institution, so that these educational goals become the needs and encourage the work of the members of the institution
- Select, select, describe and define processes in the form of actions, activities and work patterns that are calculated and provide results in accordance with the goals set
- Supervise the implementation of the educational process by monitoring, checking and controlling every activity, action on every system process. This effort is often associated with inherent supervision or quality control in education.
- Assessing the results that have been achieved and the processes that are currently in effect, in addition to seeking information about the results and processes as feedback that can improve processes and results in the future
Scope of Educational Administration
There are several fields within the scope of educational administration, including:
- Organization and structure of administrative staff
- School finance budget
- School staffing and personnel issues
- Finance and bookkeeping
- Correspondence or correspondence
- Problems with appointments, transfers, placements, reports, filling in the master book, report cards and so on
- Student organization
- Student health problems
- Evaluation of student progress
- Student welfare issues
- Guidance and counseling for students
Teacher Personnel Bidang
- Teacher appointment and placement
- Teacher person organization
- Staffing problems
- Condition problems and evaluation of teacher progress
- Refreshing and upgrading teachers
Field of Supervision or Supervision
- Efforts to increase the morale of teachers and administrative staff.
- Strive for and develop good cooperation between teachers, students, and school administrative staff.
- Seek and create guidelines for ways of assessing educational and teaching outcomes.
- Efforts to improve the quality and experience of teachers.
Field of Implementation and Development of Curriculum
- Guide and implement the school curriculum in an effort to achieve the basics and objectives of education and teaching.
- Implement the organization of the curriculum and its methods, in accordance with the renewal of education and the community environment.
Components of Educational Administration
The administrative components can be broadly classified into:
- School Personal Administration, the entire process of structuring personnel in schools consisting of principals, vice principals, teachers, heads of administration, all administrative employees and so on
- Curriculum Administration, all experiences provided by schools to foster children’s development by creating teaching and learning situations.
- Administration of Educational Facilities and Infrastructure, for infrastructure such as locations or places, school buildings, and sports fields. Meanwhile, facilities are direct tools to achieve educational goals, such as rooms, books, libraries, laboratories, and so on.
- Student Administration, such as OSIS with the aim of training student leadership and providing a vehicle for students to carry out appropriate curricular activities.
- School and Community Cooperation (Humas), there are several paths that can be taken in school-community relations, namely:
- Child or student
- School letters, flyers and bulletins
- Mass media
- Informal meeting
- Student progress report
- Formal contact
- Utilizing the resources available in the community
- Educational support agency
It is very clear the important role of administration in the sphere of education. Educational administration that is carried out properly will certainly support the achievement of educational goals for students.