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Definition of General Administration: Elements, Characteristics, Functions, and Examples

Timesofummah.com – know what administration is? Yep, administration is one activity that will always exist in an organization. Even educational institutions in the form of schools also have an administrative system that is different from other schools.

However, this time we will not discuss about school administration, but about general administration. Actually, what is general administration? What is the role of this general administration for the survival of an organization?

Understanding Administration

Definition of General Administration Elements, Characteristics, Functions, and Examples

Administration is a form of business and activity related to setting policies in order to achieve organizational targets and goals. In this case, administration can be divided into two understandings conveyed by experts.

Administration in the Narrow Meaning

According to Handayaningrat, administration in a narrow sense comes from the word administratie, which includes taking notes, correspondence, light bookkeeping, typing, agendas, and so on which are administrative in nature. Meanwhile, according to Atmosudirjo, administration can be viewed from a narrow scope of work, which only revolves around office work activities such as writing, typing correspondence, agendas, archives, and bookkeeping.

Based on some of these opinions, it can be concluded that the narrow definition of administration is a form of activity with office administration which includes writing and other paper work.

Administration in the Broadest Meaning

According to The Liang Gie, broadly administration is a series of activities carried out by a group of people in a work to achieve certain goals. Meanwhile, according to Siagian, administration is a process of cooperation between two or more human beings based on a certain rationality in order to achieve predetermined goals.

Thus, administration can broadly be interpreted as a process of cooperation between two or more people who have the aim of achieving targets by utilizing facilities and infrastructure in an efficient and effective manner.

An organization or company can stand and develop because of the support of resources and good management. Administration is part of the management of a company or organization which includes data collection and arrangement of matters relating to various aspects of the company or organization so that they can be optimized properly.

In everyday life, administration has many functions, both in the world of work and education. The existence of the administration can help facilitate work that is both formal and non-formal. In managing data, administration makes management easier and more precise.

So we can conclude, administration has an important and crucial role in a series of organizational or company activities.

Important Things from Understanding Administration

According to experts, there are several meanings of administration that we need to know so that they can be practiced and help smooth activities in organizations or companies.

According to George R. Terry, administration is an activity of planning, controlling and organizing office work and the driving force of those who carry it out in order to achieve the goals that have been set. Meanwhile, Arthur Grager stated that administration is the function of the administration of communication and document service of an organization.

Not much different, Sondang P. Siagian interprets administration as all forms of the process of cooperation between two or more individuals on the basis of selected rationality to achieve predetermined goals.

Ulbert Silalahi also stated that administration is the systematic compilation and recording of data/information both internally and externally in an effort to provide information and make it easier to retrieve it either partially or completely.

William Leffingwell and Edwin Robinson explain that administration is a part of management science that is concerned with the efficient execution of office work, when and where the work must be done.

Based on these various administrative definitions, we can draw 3 important things that can be used to help the work process in organizations or companies.

  1. Administration is an art as well as a conditional and situational process. Because, this will be related to the situation, time, condition, and place.
  2. There are certain elements, among which there are two or more people in it, there is cooperation between people that has a formal and hierarchical nature, there are tasks, have goals, and the availability of facilities and infrastructure.
  3. Administration will appear simultaneously with the emergence of human civilization, where administration has a goal to achieve the final result together.

Administrative Elements That Must Be Fulfilled

According to The Liang Gie, there are 8 elements that must be met in the administration in order to create positive functions and impacts for organizations and companies.

1. Organization

The organization is a place where administrative activities are carried out. People will gather to become a place for their workers.

2. Management

Management is the main tool for carrying out administrative operations. In the implementation there are several parts such as regulators, movers, managers, and operational personnel. Management is also divided into three groups, namely top management, and lower management.

3. Communication

Administration also regulates communication between departments within an organization. For example through letters or news. This is very important because it is to know and clarify the circulating information so that there is good communication between the management, the client, and the administration itself.

4. Staffing

Employment relates to the use of labor. Interrelated processes are acceptance, placement, utilization, and termination of work.

5. Finance

This relates to the financing of the cooperation contract, from how to obtain funds to accountability. For example, administration of sales, purchases, contracts or leases, and sources of funds.

6. Supplies

There is a relationship related to the procurement of goods, deviations, and removal. The administration will sort out which items are needed for work activities.

7. Administration

In the administration there are activities that include recording, storing, and sending documents or data. This element is very important in administration because it becomes a source of information for organizations to make decisions.

8. Public Relations

Public relations or what is commonly called public relations is an effort to establish good relations with consumers and clients. The administration will create rules on how to relate to the public, especially to consumers.

General Administration Characteristics

Administration has several characteristics or characteristics that we can see as follows.

  • Administration has clear goals.
  • There is a human group in the administration consisting of two or more people.
  • Administration is always associated with collaborative activities.
  • There is a business or work process in the administration.
  • The existence of a leader, mentor and supervision in carrying out activities in the administration.

General Administration Functions

There are several general administrative functions that we must pay attention to in order to be implemented properly.

1. Planning/ planning

Planning is an activity that requires an administrative activity, starting from data collection, data processing, to the planning process.

2. Organizing/compiling

Preparation is the activity of compiling and building work communication between members within the organization, so that it will achieve a business unit for the goals of the organization.

3. Coordinating/coordination

Coordination is a management function that carries out a number of activities or activities so that they run well, so that there is no chaos, vacancy of activities, or clashes that are carried out by connecting, adjusting, and uniting a subordinate’s work that is in planned cooperation in an effort to achieve a goal. organization goals.

4. Reporting

A report is an activity or activity in the form of delivering the progress or results of an activity by making and providing reports on the duties and functions to higher officials, both in writing and orally to get an overview of the implementation of the duties of the members of the organization.

5. Budgeting/budget preparation

Budgeting is an activity of planning and managing finances and budgets in an organization that is carried out on an ongoing basis.

6. Staffing/placement

Placement is an activity related to human resources and other resources within an organization, starting from the recruitment of workers, development, and equipment within the organization.

7. Directing

Guidance or direction is an activity of interacting with members of the organization in the form of providing support, guidance, advice, orders so that tasks are carried out properly to achieve predetermined goals.

General Administration Purpose

Based on the various definitions, elements, characteristics, and functions that we already know, we can also find out some of the objectives of general administration as follows.

1. To develop a business program

Every organization needs information and data as a guide in the preparation of superior work programs. Information and data can be obtained through administrative activities. So that administration must be carried out systematically so that the information and data needed can be found easily.

2. Evaluating organizational activities

With a good administrative system, it can help organizations to see various information and existing data. Through this information and data, the organization can evaluate each activity carried out.

3. Monitoring administrative activities

Because administrative activities include many things, so that their implementation must be carried out regularly and systematically. An organization can monitor how, when, what, where, and why an activity is carried out if it has good administration.

4. Ensure the security of business activities

Every organization or company requires security certainty in carrying out its business activities. Therefore, every organization needs good administration to monitor every activity that exists, both from within and from outside the organization.

Apart from those mentioned above, administrative objectives can also be divided into 2, namely administration with long-term goals and administration with short-term goals.

Long-term goals with an administrative pattern are aimed at achieving targets in an organization on a long-term basis, so that they are not made by just anyone in the organization but by the owners of the organization. The purpose of this administration is ideal, general, and the qualifications are not limited.

For short-term goals of a smaller nature, it is usually made by the divisional part of the organization for divisional scope policies. This goal is specific, has a small scope, and the qualifications are also limited.

Examples of Administrative Activities

There are several examples of administrative forms by type that we need to know.

  1. Population administration such as making family cards, ID cards, birth certificates, death certificates, and others.
  2. Population administration such as makin lesson schedules, managing correspondence, and managing school activities.
  3. Office administration such as taking care of employee attendance, making incoming and outgoing letters of goods, recording stock of goods, and others.
  4. Financial administration such as making financial bookkeeping records, making invoices, making financial reports, and others.
  5. State administration such as the rules for the formation of agencies and commissions in government, rules and procedures for public services, as well as the activities of the president governing cabinet reshuffles.

General Administration Role

The administrative role can be said to be the Queen of Peace. Just imagine, surely the commotion will continue to occur in an organization or company when the administration is not running properly. The administrator will later become a liaison in various departments, company partners, and consumers.

Thus, we can conclude that general administration has several roles, as follows.

  1. Support the implementation of the main tasks to achieve organizational goals.
  2. Provide information for officials or organizational leaders for decision making.
  3. Helping the smooth development of the organization as a whole because it is involved in handling documents which are a source of information.

Therefore, there are several fields that can handle some special matters, such as understanding the meaning of administration, improving the performance of office staff in terms of organization and managing office administration in various fields. There are also those in charge of issuing proper filing standards, developing and managing company assets, developing administrative procedures, controlling and planning administrative budgets, and making reports on company activities ranging from payroll to other shipping activities.

Although the main duties of administrators depend on the company, they will act as a bridge between management and employees.

General Administration Principles

Before carrying out an activity, there are several principles of general administration that can be considered, as follows:

1. Principle of responsibility

All general administration administrators must indicate who is responsible.

2. The principle of security

All writings of an organization or company have a certain level of security.

3. The principle of communication channels

The implementation of general administration should follow the administrative channels that have been determined, so that the entire process can be completed quickly, paying attention to supervision, and controlling the results that can be accounted for.

4. The principle of accuracy

This principle is to support all activities and smooth administration quickly and on time.

General Administration Scope

According to The Liang Gie, the scope of administration consists of information or information about a thing or event that is obtained mainly through reading or observation, such as collecting or searching for and collecting detailed information or information with the aim that it can be used later when needed.

General administration is also in the scope of note-taking or typing. This is a follow-up activity from collecting data so that it can be stored, read, or sent. Furthermore, general administration is also related to the activity of managing or analyzing an existing form of administrative data to obtain results from the data collected.

The general administration is also tasked with storing and securing documents or data in various ways, so that they can be reused later if needed. Finally, general administration is within the scope of activities to send or share files or data to other parties from within the organization or outside the organization.

How General Administration Works

The way the administration works will be closely related to the duties of the administrative staff in a company. In general, the way the administration works is as follows:

  1. Coordinate with secretaries or administrative staff from other divisions when there are joint meetings or other activities.
  2. Compile and collect documents.
  3. Prepare accommodation and tickets for work visits outside the office.
  4. Ensure supplies of office stationery.
  5. Prepare and make arrangements for meetings and other office events.
  6. Opening, managing, and distributing correspondence that enters the company in the form of letters and e-mails.
  7. Prepare bills, reports, notes, letters, and other documents using data processing applications, databases, presentations, and worksheets.

In a company or organization, administration does not only have a function in correspondence. However, it has many functions ranging from planning, compiling, coordinating, making reports and compiling budgets to providing direction or guidance for members of companies and organizations in order to achieve predetermined goals.

So every company or organization should have good administration, including competent administrative staff. Through proper management and administrative arrangements, the company’s goals will be achieved easily. In addition, the company or organization will remain standing and continue to develop in tandem with the times and increasingly fierce competition.

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