timesofummah.com – These are the 5 Founding Countries of ASEAN and Their History. On August 8, 1967, ASEAN was established by the five founding countries with the same goal, namely to establish cooperation between countries in Southeast Asia in the social, cultural, technical, educational, economic and other fields.
In addition to aiming to establish cooperation, these ASEAN countries also want to take part in promoting regional peace and stability through respect for justice and the rule of law and adherence to United Nations principles.
The establishment of ASEAN is stated in the ASEAN declaration and in it there are five foreign ministers as representatives of five countries to sign the declaration. Then, who are the five countries that took part in the establishment of ASEAN? Check out the following explanation.
ASEAN Founding Countries
When it was founded, ASEAN initially only had five members who were also representatives as the founders of ASEAN. However, after the ASEAN declaration was signed by the representatives of the five countries, ASEAN now has 10 members and is considered one of the successful intergovernmental organizations in developing countries. So, which countries took part in the founding of ASEAN?
On August 8, 1967, the five founding countries of ASEAN signed the ASEAN Declaration at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs building in Bangkok, Thailand. There were five foreign ministers representing the five founding countries.
The five countries represented by Adam Malik from Indonesia, Narciso R Ramos from the Philippines, S. Rajaratnam from Singapore, Tun Abdul Razak from Malaysia and Thanat Khoman from Thailand.
After the five countries signed the Bangkok declaration or also known as the ASEAN declaration, then other countries also joined. On January 7, 1984, Brunei Darussalam finally decided to join, followed by Vietnam on July 28, 1995, then Laos and Myanmar on July 23, 1997 and Cambodia on April 30, 1999.
That way, ASEAN now has ten members from countries in Southeast Asia. ASEAN also has a motto that is One Mission, One Identity, One Community.
The History of the Formation of ASEAN
As it is known that ASEAN stands for Association of Southeast Asian Nations and is an economic and geopolitical organization specifically for countries in the Southeast Asian region. ASEAN was originally established because there were some similarities between the five founding countries and the conflicts that occurred at that time.
Then in the 1960s the countries in Southeast Asia entered the most difficult times, until several countries experienced internal and external disputes or problems. Some of these conflicts are as follows.
Southeast Asia is a strategic place, so that the countries in Southeast Asia also become the base for the western block as well as the eastern block, for example the Philippines and Vietnam. In addition to being the base of the bloc, several countries in Southeast Asia have military conflicts such as Cambodia, Vietnam, and Laos. Apart from internal conflicts, countries such as Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam and Cambodia also have bilateral problems.
These conflicts ultimately have an impact on defense and economic stability in Southeast Asian countries. Because of the similarities in these issues, the leaders of several countries have taken the initiative to create a new atmosphere of peace and security for the region of countries in Southeast Asia and form the ASEAN organization.
That is the brief history of the formation of the ASEAN organization whose members consist of countries in Southeast Asia.
Background for the Establishment of ASEAN
As explained earlier, that initially ASEAN was formed because countries in Southeast Asia felt they had something in common, one of which was similarities because they experienced conflicts and suffered similar problems. This is the main reason ASEAN was formed, but apart from conflicts and disputes, there are other backgrounds for the formation of ASEAN. Here’s the explanation.
There are Geographical Similarities
Members of ASEAN are countries located in the Southeast Asian region and are located between the Australian continent and the Asian mainland, and are between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. Because these countries are in the same region with the same geographical location, ASEAN is formed.
Cultural similarities in ASEAN member countries also became the background for the formation of this organization. The inhabitants of Southeast Asia as it is known are descended from the Malayan and Mongoloid races. This race in its development received many influences from culture such as skin color, customs, to food. The customs that influence this taste also come from regions of India, Gujarat or Arabia and China.
Equation of Interest
Of course, ASEAN organizations can exist because each member has the same interests and wants to achieve the same goals. Whole country ASEAN members have in common that they want to achieve the same goals and vision, namely peace, prosperity, security, and order both in their regional and national environments.
Equation of Fate
The basic thing that underlies the formation of the ASEAN organization is because during that period, countries in Southeast Asia had the same fate and wanted to advance or change the fate of their respective countries for the better. In addition, it is known that most countries in Southeast Asia are developing countries.
In addition, almost all countries in Southeast Asia have been colonized by other countries. As Malaysia and Singapore were colonized by the British, Indonesia was colonized by the Netherlands and Japan to the Philippines which was colonized by Spain and America and only Thailand was the country in Southeast Asia that was free from colonialism.
Those are the four backgrounds for the formation of ASEAN and the reasons for five other countries besides the founding countries to join ASEAN.
The Purpose of the Establishment of ASEAN
Basically, ASEAN was founded because it wanted to create a peaceful, prosperous, stable and secure Southeast Asia region. However, when referring to the ASEAN declaration which was approved on August 8, 1967, the following are some of the objectives of the establishment of ASEAN.
- ASEAN was established in order to accelerate social progress, cultural development and economic growth in the Southeast Asian region.
- ASEAN has a goal to improve regional peace and increase stability which can be realized by respecting each other for justice and obeying the law in relations between countries in Southeast Asia and complying with the principles of the United Nations Charter, so as not to cause abuse of authority.
- ASEAN has a goal to increase active cooperation and mutual assistance among ASEAN member countries to solve problems that are related to common interests in science, social, economic, cultural, administrative and technical fields.
- ASEAN is established for the realization of a more effective cooperation as well as fostering cooperation between countries in order to increase agricultural output, industry, and expand trade in international commodities, improve communication and transportation facilities and infrastructure as well as improve the standard of living of the people of each ASEAN member country.
- Has a goal to be able to improve the quality of knowledge in ASEAN member countries.
- Each ASEAN member country is expected to help each other with training and research advice for educational, professional, administrative and technical purposes.
In order to maintain good relations with international organizations that have the same goals and vision, as well as to open opportunities for closer relations between ASEAN member countries.
ASEAN has a charter which is valid until 15 December 2008, after which ASEAN will continue to operate under the new legal framework and establish a number of new organs to enhance the process of community development.
The ASEAN Charter has been fully ratified by 10 ASEAN member countries, both the founding countries and the five member countries. Singapore became the first country to deposit an instrument of ratification to the ASEAN Secretary General on 7 January 2008, then Thailand became the last country to provide an instrument of ratification on 15 November 2008.
The ASEAN Charter has basically become a form of agreement between member countries that are legally bound. The Charter will also be registered with the Secretariat of the United Nations or the United Nations in accordance with Article 102, Paragraph 1 of the United Nations Charter.
So, why is the ASEAN Charter considered important for member countries? Here’s the context.
With the ASEAN Charter, member countries can see new political commitments at the top level.
- ASEAN Charter as a new and improved commitment.
- The ASEAN Charter as a new legal framework with legal personality.
- Establish a new ASEAN body.
- Open recruitment of two DSGs.
- More ASEAN meetings are being held.
- More roles from ASEAN Foreign Ministers.
- Establish a new and enhanced role of the ASEAN secretariat general.
- Initiatives and other new changes.
- What has been set will not change.
- Meanwhile, the ASEAN Charter is also concerned with new political commitments for ASEAN member countries, along with the intended political commitments.
United under one vision, one identity and one community of caring and sharing.
Building an ASEAN community consisting of the following :
- ASEAN political and security community
- ASEAN Economic Community
- ASEAN social and cultural community
With the establishment of the ASEAN organization, member countries also need to adhere to the organizational principles that have been agreed upon and formed in such a way. Here are the ASEAN principles.
Respect the sovereignty, independence, equality, integrity of each national territory as well as the national identity of each country.
Every country has the right to be able to lead a national presence that is free from interference, as well as coercive or subversive from outside parties.
The principle of not interfering in the domestic affairs of fellow ASEAN member countries.
Resolve differences and debates in a peaceful manner.
Refuse to use force as well as lethal things.
Effective cooperation of each member country.
ASEAN Basic Principles
There are also basic principles of ASEAN, here are some principles.
- Respect the independence, equality, sovereignty, national identity and territorial integrity of all ASEAN member countries
- Share commitments and collective responsibilities in enhancing regional security, peace and prosperity
- Resist regression and the threat or use of force and other actions in a manner inconsistent with international law
- Reliance on peaceful settlement of disputes
- Non-interference in the internal affairs of ASEAN member countries
- Respect each member state’s rights to maintain its national existence free from external interference, coercion or subversion
- Consultation is increased on matters that are serious in nature and can affect the common interests of each ASEAN member country
- Compliance with the rule of law, democratic principles, good governance to constitutional government
- Respect for basic freedoms, protection of human rights, promotion and promotion of social justice
- Uphold the Charter of the United Nations and international law, including international humanitarian law that has been approved by ASEAN member countries
- Not participating in policies or activities including the use of their territory and being pursued by ASEAN and non-ASEAN member countries or non-state actors that may threaten the sovereignty, territorial integrity and political and economic stability of ASEAN countries
- Respect the differences in language, culture and religion of the people of ASEAN member countries, while also emphasizing the value of togetherness in the spirit of unity in diversity.
ASEAN’s centrality in political, social and cultural relations, external economy while being actively involved, outward-looking, non-discriminatory, and inclusive
Adhere to all multilateral trade rules and regulations on the basis of ASEAN regimes for effective implementation and economic commitments as well as progressive reduction of all obstacles to the elimination of all barriers to regional economic integrity in the market economy drive.
Some ASEAN Cooperation
ASEAN has held several meetings to establish energy security cooperation. The collaboration was carried out by ASEAN 3+ to ratify the Energy Security Forum, Oil Market Forum, Natural Gas Forum, Oil Stockpiling Forum and Renewable Energy Forum activity programs. ASEAN has collaborated with three partner countries, namely Japan, India and China.
When cooperating with Japan, ASEAN hopes that Japan can play a role in taking an increasingly assertive economic role. This is because Japan is considered passive in its role in terms of political and military power because there is still a strong rival, namely China.
In addition, ASEAN has also formed a partnership with China. Cooperation with China was formed because the contours of dementia are getting more complex every year. Thus, it requires each ASEAN member country to be adaptive to geopolitical dynamics and regional geostrategy. As is the case with the increase in the PRC’s military capabilities, which America views as a threat.
ASEAN also formed a partnership with India which has become a full-fledged dialogue partner for ASEAN at the fifth ASEAN Summit in Bangkok. Leaders from ASEAN member countries as well as leaders from India have emphasized that they are committed to increasing cooperation in the fields of trade, development, investment, human resources, technology to science and information technology.
That is an explanation of the five founding countries of ASEAN as well as additional material about ASEAN starting from additional members, history and cooperation formed by ASEAN with three other countries.