Timesofummah.com – Soon, Muslims will celebrate Ramadan 1443 hijri. During the holy month, a Muslim who has reached puberty, mukim (not a traveler), sane, and able to resist hunger and thirst is required to perform fasting.
As with other acts of worship, the provisions of fasting are regulated in jurisprudence. Before learning more about the details of the law of Ramadan, one must first know the meaning of fasting according to language and terminology, as well as the general outline of its work in Islam.
Fasting is one of the five pillars of Islam that must be performed by every Muslim, as stated in the words of the Prophet Muhammad SAW:
“Islam is upheld on five things, namely: Witness that there is no god but Allah, and testify that the Prophet Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah (creed), establish prayer, pay zakat, pilgrimage to the House, and fast in Ramadan,” (HR Bukhari and Muslim).
The command of fasting is also stated in surah Al-Baqarah verse 183: “O you who believe, it is obligatory upon you to fast as it was obligatory upon those before you so that you may be pious,” (QS. Al-Baqarah : 183).
The Meaning of Fasting According to Language and Terms
In Arabic, fasting (الصوم) means restraint or restraint. Linguistically, fasting which means restraint is recorded in the story of Mary, the mother of Jesus when she promised not to speak to others.
ِنِّي نَذَرتُ لِلرَّحْمَنِ صَوْما فَلَن أُكَلِّمَ ليَومَ
The Latin reading: “Inni nadzartu lirrahmaani shauman falan ukallimal yauma insiyya”
“Indeed, I have vowed to fast for the sake of the Most Gracious God that I will not speak to any human being this day,” (QS. Maryam : 26).
In the above verse, Mary said: “I fasted to speak”, which means she refrained from speaking.
The use of fasting (according to the language) is also often done in everyday conversation, for example “fishing fast”, “noodle fasting fast”, and so on.
Meanwhile, in terms, fasting is abstaining from everything that cancels it from dawn to sunset simply because of the command of Allah SWT, and accompanied by certain intentions and conditions, as quoted from Complete Islamic Fiqh (1978) written by Moh. Rifa’i.
More specifically, fasting is meant to refrain from hunger, thirst, and genital lust, as well as anything that enters the abdominal cavity in the body.
The duration of its implementation is clearly stated in the hadith of the Prophet SAW, that is, from the second dawn or the dawn of shadiq (time of imsak) until sunset.
In addition, the new fasting is declared valid when performed by a person who is already a Muslim, sane, not menstruating or postpartum, and intends to fast confidently without worry or doubt.
Furthermore, Ramadan fasting also has many benefits for those who practice it.
Among the rewards and rewards of fasting is forgiveness from Allah SWT, as stated in the words of the Prophet SAW:
“Whoever performs the fast of Ramadan with faith and sincerity, then his past sins will be forgiven,” (H.R. Bukhari and Muslim).
In the language of fasting, it means refraining, while the meaning of the term is refraining from canceling the fast from dawn to sunset.